What are the thyroid ?

The thyroid gland is a butterfly-shaped organ located just below the cartilage called Adam's apple in the anterior part of the neck. It weighs about 20 grams. It secretes hormones that are vital for our body.

What are the duties of the thyroid gland?

Thyroid gland secretes T3-T4 hormones. These hormones enter the bloodstream and regulate our metabolism and control its speed. In different organs and tissues of the body; It affects functions related to many different systems such as heart rate, cholesterol level, weight, mental state, menstrual cycle. Current researches show that various thyroid gland diseases likely to be seen at a rate of 30-40% and they are more common in women.


Symptoms in case of hyperthyroidism with excessive thyroid hormones secretion are

  • Palpitation
  • Hypertension
  • Sweating
  • Irritability
  • Unrest
  • Warm and moist skin
  • Intolerance to heat
  • Weight loss (Slimming despite good appetite)
  • Shaky hands
  • Thinning, breakage and hair loss
  • Thinning of the skin
  • Persistent diarrhea
  • Sensitivity to bright light
  • Insomnia
  • Menstrual irregularity, inability to menstruate
  • Goiter (enlarged thyroid gland)

Symptoms of hypotriodial thyroid hormones are:

  • Weakness, getting tired quickly, slow movement
  • Depressed mood and unhappiness
  • Intolerance to cold environments
  • Edema in hands and feet
  • Reduced sweating
  • Hoarseness
  • Constipation
  • Abnormal weight gain, increased appetite
  • Forgetfulness, decreased concentration
  • Puberty delay in men
  • Reduction or absence of menstrual duration and frequency in women

Apart from these, patients may notice swelling in their neck when the thyroid gland is enlarged.

Diagnostic Methods

First of all, a manual examination is made by the physician to the neck area. A blood test is then requested and TSH, T3, T4 and, if necessary, thyroid autoantibodies are checked. Thyroid ultrasonography and scintigraphy are performed to see the structure of the thyroid gland and the presence of nodules. Needle biopsy can be applied for more detailed examination of nodules.